Despite the continuous tendency of Critical Infrastructures and modern society in his complex toward the automation and the artificial intelligence, the role of humans remains essential. It is a debated philosophical issue whether automation will ever be complete or not.
First of all, the users of any Infrastructure and the beneficiaries of any organized Service provision are humans. This means that any infrastructure needs ultimately to interact with humans and adapt to their needs and global behavior. Moreover, for several reasons, such as accountability or liability requirements and present limits of automated decision systems, real infrastructures are governed by people that determine their behavior at different hierarchical levels. Managers do define the general strategies and take the lead during the crisis; while operators take continuously granular decisions at local level that strongly influence the global performance (especially the operative continuity) of any Infrastructure. Therefore to understand and model Critical Infrastructures one needs to provide appropriate models for decision makers, operators and users.
Progresses in the former field may be achieved by several means: serious gaming; exercises; simulators; sociological and psychological studies of human reactions; game theory etc. Contributions in these sectors are welcome and will be gathered in a common session. Decision support systems are also relevant in this context since they represent a bridge (or possibly and intermediate step) between total automation and manual management.